The new pariah: the US Person

Someone who read my SDN article wrote to me that it’s not only banks that are refusing US Persons (as client). The reader mentions that a European export advisor warned the European company where the reader works, that the company will have to comply with US sanctions law, because of an employee that is a US Person.

Will the new trend be that no one wants US Persons as a client, employee or service provider? Will US Persons become the pariahs of this decade?

The reader referred to Section 744.6. Restrictions on certain activities of U.S. persons, to be found in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.  The section imposes obligations on (amongst others) every person that is US citizen, all over the world (including Accidental Americans). It prohibits a broad range of activities and may include objects and services that you would not expect to be relevant. According to the reader it includes products that everyone can buy at the local Gamma (do-it-yourself store).

Text (color marking by me):

§ 744.6 Restrictions on certain activities of U.S. persons.

(a) General prohibitions

(1) Activities related to exports.
(i) No U.S. person as defined in paragraph (c) of this section may, without a license from BIS, export, reexport, or transfer (in-country) an item where that person knows that such item:
(A) Will be used in the design, development, production, or use of nuclear explosive devices in or by a country listed in Country Group D:2 (see supplement no. 1 to part 740 of the EAR).
(B) Will be used in the design, development, production, or use of missiles in or by a country listed in Country Group D:4 (see supplement no. 1 to part 740 of the EAR); or
(C) Will be used in the design, development, production, stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide.

(ii) No U.S. person shall, without a license from BIS, knowingly support an export, reexport, or transfer (in-country) that does not have a license as required by this section. Support means any action, including financing, transportation, and freight forwarding, by which a person facilitates an export, reexport, or transfer (in-country).

(2) Other activities unrelated to exports. No U.S. person shall, without a license from BIS:

(i) Perform any contract, service, or employment that the U.S. person knows will directly assist in the design, development, production, or use of missiles in or by a country listed in Country Group D:4 (see supplement no. 1 to part 740 of the EAR); or
(ii) Perform any contract, service, or employment that the U.S. person knows will directly assist in the design, development, production, stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide.

(3) Whole plant requirement. No U.S. person shall, without a license from BIS, participate in the design, construction, export, reexport, or transfer (in-country) of a whole plant to make chemical weapons precursors identified in ECCN 1C350, in countries other than those listed in Country Group A:3 (Australia Group) (See supplement no. 1 to part 740 of the EAR).

(b) Additional prohibitions on U.S. persons informed by BIS. BIS may inform U.S. persons, either individually by specific notice or through amendment to the EAR, that a license is required because an activity could involve the types of participation and support described in paragraph (a) of this section. Specific notice is to be given only by, or at the direction of, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Administration. When such notice is provided orally, it will be followed by a written notice within two working days signed by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Export Administration. However, the absence of any such notification does not excuse the U.S. person from compliance with the license requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Definition of U.S. person. For purposes of this section, the term U.S. person includes:
(1) Any individual who is a citizen of the United States, a permanent resident alien of the United States, or a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3);
(2) Any juridical person organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States, including foreign branches; and
(3) Any person in the United States.

(d) Exceptions. No License Exceptions apply to the prohibitions described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(e) License review standards. Applications to engage in activities otherwise prohibited by this section will be denied if the activities would make a material contribution to the design, development, production, stockpiling, or use of nuclear explosive devices, chemical or biological weapons, or of missiles.
[61 FR 12802, Mar. 25, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 25459, May 9, 1997; 70 FR 19691, Apr. 14, 2005; 73 FR 68326, Nov. 18, 2008]

The Western world trembles with fear for the Americans. But when the US harms decent citizens or violates human rights, a line has to be drawn.

Over Ellen Timmer, advocaat ondernemingsrecht @Pellicaan

Verbonden aan Pellicaan Advocaten, http://www.pellicaan.nl/, kantoor Rotterdam, telefoon 088-6272287, fax 088-6272280, e-mail ellen.timmer@pellicaan.nl ||| Weblogs: algemeen: https://ellentimmer.com/ || modernisering ondernemingsrecht: http://flexbv.wordpress.com/ ||| Motto: goede bedoelingen rechtvaardigen geen slechte regels
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